[135] The infant mortality rate is 13 per 1,000 live births,[136] a major improvement from approximately 76 in the early 1980s and 140 in 1950. A few months later, a part of the Peruvian liberation army of San Martin decided to occupy the independent cities of Tumbez and Jaén with the intention of using these towns as springboards to occupy the independent city of Guayaquil and then to liberate the rest of the Audiencia de Quito (Ecuador). If you avoid those area’s, Cuenca is a … Ecuador also has people of middle eastern extraction that have also joined the ranks of the white minority. Rain can also vary on a local basis. In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music". Ecuadorian institutions compute extensive information using supercomputers such as Quinde I, the most powerful of that country performing 232 TeraFLOPS. Moreover, the Cauca region, throughout its long history, had very strong economic and cultural ties with the people of Ecuador. Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints). According to the peace negotiations Peru agreed to return Guayaquil, Tumbez, and Jaén; despite this, Peru returned Guayaquil, but failed to return Tumbes and Jaén, alleging that it was not obligated to follow the agreements, since the Gran Colombia ceased to exist when it divided itself into three different nations - Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The people of the coast developed a fishing, hunting, and gathering culture; the people of the highland Andes developed a sedentary agricultural way of life, and the people of the Amazon basin developed a nomadic hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. The mostly rural Montubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, who might be classified as Pardo account for 7.4% of the population. EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The five largest cities in the country are Guayaquil (2.99 million inhabitants), Quito (1.87 million inhabitants),[110] Cuenca (636,996 inhabitants), Santo Domingo (458,580 inhabitants), and Ambato (387,309 inhabitants). Under President Rafael Correa, the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in 2020 under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue.[44][45]. [citation needed], There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. The 1797 Riobamba earthquake, which caused up to 40,000 casualties, was studied by Alexander von Humboldt, when he visited the area in 1801–1802. So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin. Their movement, along with the continuing destabilizing efforts by both the elite and leftist movements, has led to a deterioration of the executive office. On July 28, 1821, Peruvian independence was proclaimed in Lima by the Liberator San Martin, and Tumbes and Jaen, which were included as part of the revolution of Trujillo by the Peruvian occupying force, had the whole region swear allegiance to the new Peruvian flag and incorporated itself into Peru, even though Peru was not completely liberated from Spain. Realistically, though, these happen anywhere in th… He is accompanied by the vice-president, currently María Alejandra Muñoz, elected for four years (with the ability to be re-elected only once). Being located on the equator, the Galápagos Islands would have an equatorial climate were it not for the modifying effects of the Peruvian Current. The current constitution was written by the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly elected in 2007, and was approved by referendum in 2008. Ecuador is one of the smaller countries in South America, but bigger than Uruguay, Guyana, Surinam and French Guyana, also in South America. The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean. In the late 19th century, world demand for cocoa tied the economy to commodity exports and led to migrations from the highlands to the agricultural frontier on the coast. Above sea level to an altitude of 450 meters (1,476 ft), the islands have a mixture of tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. Atahualpa marched south to Cuzco and massacred the royal family associated with his brother. Most of them are Sephardic Anusim (Crypto-Jews) and many still speak Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language. [104] According to their own sources, in 2017 there were 92,752 Jehovah's Witnesses in the country. "), named after Eloy Alfaro. [57] Current protected areas include 11 national parks, 10 wildlife refuges, 9 ecological reserves, and other areas. The White Ecuadorians (White Latin American) are a minority accounting for 6.1% of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador, primarily around the urban areas. The public finance of Ecuador consists of the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE), the National Development Bank (BNF), the State Bank. He announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds; he then pledged to fight creditors in international courts and succeeded in reducing the price of outstanding bonds by more than 60%. Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways. (May 2012), 2017 Service Year Report of Jehovah's Witnesses. [100] Quito's old city-centre airport is being turned into parkland, with some light industrial use. Ecuador is bigger than Uruguay, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana in South America. Fruitless negotiations continued between the governments of Bogotá and Quito, where the government of Bogotá did not recognize the separation of Ecuador or that of Cauca from the Gran Colombia until war broke out in May 1832. The total area of Ecuador is 276,840 square km, which converts to 106,888.52 square miles Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, and the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. For international dialing instructions to Ecuador, use our drop down boxes at the top of this page or check out our easy-to-use country code search tool. The Ecuadorian Amazon is mainly a tropical rainforest elevated 400 m above sea level. Mornings typically are bright and sunny, whereas afternoons often are cloudy and rainy. The Putumayo forms part of the border with Colombia. [citation needed] Despite this, there is limited export of products produced or processed industrially. About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training. [106][citation needed] Today the Jewish Community of Ecuador (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 200 members. The inflation rate until January 2008, was about 1.14%, the highest in the past year, according to the government. The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft). The central belt of Ecuador that includes the Andes Mountains, inland from the coast; with volcanoes and mountain peaks that sport year-round snow on the equator; many areas long since deforested by agriculture; a number of cut-flower growing operations; at a certain altitude zone may be found cloud forests. Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, two Assembly members elected from each province and one for every 100,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 150,000, according to the latest national population census. The highest is Chimborazo at 20,577 ft (6,272 m). Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits have received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades have been rejected. Poverty's down about 27 percent since he took office." Urbina and General Robles are examples of military figures who became presidents of the country in the early republican period. Contemporary Ecuadorian scientists who have been recognized by international institutions are Eugenia del Pino (born 1945), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the United States National Academy of Science, and Arturo Villavicencio, who was part of the working group of the IPCC, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change. In general, temperatures are around 17 °C (62.6 °F). One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. These are elected by the Judicial Council on the basis of opposition proceedings and merits. [134] Ecuadorians have a life expectancy of 77.1 years. Being a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology. Of this, 276,841 km (106,889 sq mi) is land and 6,720 km (2,595 sq mi) water. In 1830, Ecuador separated from Gran Colombia and became an independent republic. In January 2009, the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE) put the 2010 growth forecast at 6.88%. The Ecuadorian country code and Ecuador area code chart below gives you the necessary information for calling Ecuadorian cities. Its best known professional teams include; Emelec from Guayaquil, Liga De Quito from Quito; Barcelona S.C. from Guayaquil, the most popular team in Ecuador, also the team with most local championships; Deportivo Quito, and El Nacional from Quito; Olmedo from Riobamba; and Deportivo Cuenca from Cuenca. The diversity of its four regions has given rise to thousands of species of flora and fauna. Ecuador has won two medals in the Olympic Games, both gained by 20-km (12 mi) racewalker Jefferson Pérez, who took gold in the 1996 games and silver 12 years later. The civil society more and more insistently called for democratic elections. [91] It also serves on the World Trade Organization (WTO), in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) and other multilateral agencies. Here, average temperatures are 3 to 9 °C (37.4 to 48.2 °F), and the precipitation often appears in the form of rain, hail, and thick fog. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war. However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts. His government was committed to improving human rights protection and carried out some reforms, notably an opening of Ecuador to foreign trade. The Minister of Public Health is appointed directly by the President of the Republic. Many people believe that he was assassinated by the CIA,[citation needed] given the multiple death threats leveled against him because of his reformist agenda, deaths in automobile crashes of two key witnesses before they could testify during the investigation, and the sometimes contradictory accounts of the incident. In this way, Ecuador gave up the claims it had to the Amazonian territories between the Caquetá River and Napo River to Colombia, thus cutting itself off from Brazil. In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off. In the case of Ecuador, Flores-based Ecuador's de jure claims on the following cedulas - Real Cedula of 1563, 1739, and 1740; with modifications in the Amazon Basin and Andes Mountains that were introduced through the Treaty of Guayaquil (1829) which Peru reluctantly signed, after the overwhelmingly outnumbered Gran Colombian force led by Antonio José de Sucre defeated President and General La Mar's Peruvian invasion force in the Battle of Tarqui. Although well-equipped general hospitals are found in the major cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller towns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery. In 2008, the government introduced universal and compulsory social security coverage. Land use statistics for Ecuador. As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean). Ecuador and Peru came to an accord formalized in the Rio Protocol, signed on January 29, 1942, in favor of hemispheric unity against the Axis Powers in World War II favouring Peru with the territory they occupied at the time the war came to an end. [30], In December 2008, president Correa declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate, based on the argument that it was odious debt contracted by corrupt and despotic prior regimes. Ecuador has negotiated bilateral treaties with other countries, besides belonging to the Andean Community of Nations,[90] and an associate member of Mercosur. Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20-km (12 mi) distance. Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again in 1860, since Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months. Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries, court auctioneers, and court receivers. Two high and parallel ranges of the Andes, traversing the country from north to south, are topped by tall volcanic peaks. Ecuador is governed by a democratically elected president, for a four-year term. Peru had an army of 11,681 troops who faced a poorly supplied and inadequately armed Ecuadorian force of 2,300, of which only 1,300 were deployed in the southern provinces. In the south, the cordilleras are not well defined. It has 20,4 km and 27 stations. Then on February 6, 1937, Ecuador presented a transactional line which Peru rejected the next day. The eastern lowlands in the Oriente experience abundant rainfall, especially in the Andean Piedmont, sometimes exceeding 5,000 millimeters (196.9 in) per year. Peru contested Ecuador's claims with the newly discovered Real Cedula of 1802, by which Peru claims the King of Spain had transferred these lands from the Viceroyalty of New Granada to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Ecuador has land which is rich in petroleum. This treaty disregarded Spanish rights that were confirmed during colonial times by a Spanish-Portuguese treaty over the Amazon regarding territories held by illegal Portuguese settlers. This important date was established by the Spaniards on June 24, coincidentally the same date when Amerindian people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi. A great place to experience not only the fascinating geography but also the unique and abundant wildlife. With each ascent of 200 meters (656 ft) in altitude, temperature drops 1 °C (1.8 °F). Atahualpa, with a large number of his father's veteran soldiers, decided to ignore Huáscar, and a civil war ensued. Some examples in this group are the Gynecologic Hospitals, or Maternities, Children Hospitals, Geriatric Hospitals, and Oncology Institutes. How many of each type of land belongs to each man live in the country. Valverde, the priest, tried to convince Atahualpa that he should join the Catholic Church and declare himself a vassal of Spain. The cold level above 450 meters (1,476 ft) has temperatures below 14 °C (57.2 °F). A corrupt American archaeologist is behind the plot, believing d'Hout holds the keys to locating a treasure hidden by a buccaneer ancestor. Historic documents repeatedly stated that San Martin told Bolivar he came to Guayaquil to liberate the land of the Incas from Spain. The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra. Ecuador currently ranks 20, in most efficient health care countries, compared to 111 back in the year 2000. The rest of Ecuador gained its independence after Antonio José de Sucre defeated the Spanish Royalist forces at the Battle of Pichincha, near Quito. They lie either side of the Equator and 1,000 kilometres west of mainland Ecuador. The Amazon region of Ecuador is one of the few places in the world where it is probably best to travel with a group, with a guide or through a jungle lodge. One of Ecuador's most important natural resource is arable land which made up 4.3% of the country's total land area in 2015. Vice President Alfredo Palacio took his place and remained in office until the presidential election of 2006, in which Rafael Correa gained the presidency. During its negotiations with Brazil, Peru stated that based on the royal cedula of 1802, it claimed Amazonian Basin territories up to Caqueta River in the north and toward the Andes Mountain range, depriving Ecuador and Colombia of all their claims to the Amazon Basin. [84] Ecuador also produces coffee, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains and sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork and dairy products; fish, and shrimp; and balsa wood. In the small Chota Valley of the province of Imbabura exists a small community of Africans among the province's predominantly mestizo population. The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly, which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of 137 assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term. One exception is "The Ecuadorian Deception," a murder mystery/thriller authored by American Bear Mills. Huáscar ordered Atahualpa to attend their father's burial in Cuzco and pay homage to him as the new Inca ruler. Ecuador abolished slavery and freed its black slaves in 1851.[27]. Ecuador has a total area of 283,561 km (109,484 sq mi), including the Galápagos Islands. However, according to Nature, the multidisciplinary scientific journal the top 10 institutions that carry the most outstanding scientific contributions are: Yachay Tech University (Yachay Tech), Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), and Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ).[148]. [143] The Ministry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is 6.7. The Costa extends eastward into the country to be replaced by the abrupt rise of the Andean Sierra region. It has 2,010 km (1,250 mi) of land boundaries, with Colombia in the north (with a 590 km (367 mi) border) and Peru in the east and south (with a 1,420 km (882 mi) border). The untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The Galápagos are located 1,000 kilometres (621 mi) west of the Ecuadorian coast. The emergence of the Amerindian population as an active constituency has added to the democratic volatility of the country in recent years. Area of agricultural lands - arable land, permanent crops, permanent meadows and pastures. Pasillo is a genre of indigenous Latin music. UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms. However, the main road leading from Quito city centre to the new airport will only be finished in late 2014, making current travelling from the airport to downtown Quito as long as two hours during rush hour. [46], The International Organization for Migration lauds Ecuador as the first state to have established the promotion of the concept of universal citizenship in its constitution, aiming to promote the universal recognition and protection of the human rights of migrants. The Ministry of Information and Tourism was created on August 10, 1992, at the beginning of the government of Sixto Durán Ballén, who viewed tourism as a fundamental activity for the economic and social development of the peoples. Its route starts in the south of Cuenca and ends in the north at the Parque Industrial neighbourhood. In spite of Ecuador's considerable mystique, it is rarely featured as a setting in contemporary western literature. Today you can find a small community of Africans in the Catamayo valley of the predominantly mestizo population of Loja. [citation needed]. The major routes are Pan American (under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja). [29] The Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States of America) ruled that the border of the undelineated zone was to be set at the line of the Cordillera del Cóndor. From 2014 to 2015 the amount of arable land in Ecuador increased at a significant rate. Even though Ecuador's white population during its colonial era were mainly descendants from Spain, today Ecuador's white population is a result of a mixture of European immigrants, predominantly from Spain with people from Italy, Germany, France, and Switzerland who have settled in the early 20th century. The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña (Quito School), which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito. The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. The first president of Ecuador was the Venezuelan-born Juan José Flores, who was ultimately deposed, followed by several authoritarian leaders, such as Vicente Rocafuerte; José Joaquín de Olmedo; José María Urbina; Diego Noboa; Pedro José de Arteta; Manuel de Ascásubi; and Flores's own son, Antonio Flores Jijón, among others. The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. The majority of Ecuadorians live in the central provinces, the Andes mountains, or along the Pacific coast. Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include Eugenio Espejo, a printer and main author of the first newspaper in Ecuadorian colonial times; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo (born in Guayaquil), famous for his ode to Simón Bolívar titled Victoria de Junin; Juan Montalvo, a prominent essayist and novelist; Juan Leon Mera, famous for his work "Cumanda" or "Tragedy among Savages" and the Ecuadorian National Anthem; Juan A. Martinez with A la Costa; Dolores Veintimilla;[123] and others. Temperatures in the Sierra do not vary greatly on a seasonal basis; the hottest month averages 16 °C (60.8 °F) and the coolest month, 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the upper elevations. The country is classified as an upper-middle-income country. The Rio Protocol failed to precisely resolve the border along a little river in the remote Cordillera del Cóndor region in southern Ecuador. 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