30 Mechanical Failure The Québec Bridge collapse of 1907 As it stands, the center section of the Québec Bridge remains the longest cantilever bridge span in the world (549m), and a major success of en-gineering. 0000023652 00000 n 0000085703 00000 n 0000066317 00000 n �B���e�t�P��C�Du���@"���҅�j��E� ���n? 0000091121 00000 n 0000028200 00000 n 0000082369 00000 n 0000021890 00000 n 0000027420 00000 n When Robert Douglas, a Canadian government engineer, reviewed Cooper's specifications, he criticized the very high stresses the longer span required. 0000026512 00000 n 0000027732 00000 n 0000048692 00000 n 0000110115 00000 n Each budding engineer then receives an Iron Ring to be worn on the small finger of the … 0000078275 00000 n Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. 0000039485 00000 n That word "cheapest" would come back to haunt him. 0000027316 00000 n 0000024952 00000 n 0000084696 00000 n 0000027368 00000 n 0000025524 00000 n Tradition asks that the rings are returned by retired engineers or by the families of deceased engineers. 0000068003 00000 n It’s a national historic site, and it still holds the world record as the longest cantilever bridge with a span of 1800 feet. 0000115328 00000 n It began at the largest cantilever bridge in the world, the Quebec Bridge over the St. Lawrence river. 0000047734 00000 n 0000077193 00000 n )��5_�_�p�jP���Q*ؤ�Ir'� \=!��"}W�I�)���J�ҥc�LM'�̲| �e0O9��fz ��s��3�]��ZsE�ڗ���[���d���}&�ܺ��2�҅�j����t+#\���S������ ���b endstream endobj 251 0 obj 771 endobj 252 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 251 0 R >> stream 0000069122 00000 n 0000021380 00000 n 0000093595 00000 n 0000108712 00000 n 0000059407 00000 n 0000116558 00000 n Engineers in Canada wear an iron ring on the little finger of their working hand. But the collapse of the bridge led to the tradition of the Iron Ring to symbolize the humility and fallibility of engineers. 0000104880 00000 n The Iron Ring originated from H. E. T. Haultain, a mining engineering professor at the University of Toronto. 0000054208 00000 n 0000106243 00000 n 0000073511 00000 n 0000024692 00000 n The ring … 0000084031 00000 n Whether or not this is a fact it is to be seen as a symbol of the seriousness of the engineering profession's responsibility and the dire consequences of negligence or mistakes in an engineer's work. American engineer Theodore Cooper was chosen to design it. 0000082047 00000 n 0000052379 00000 n 0000103539 00000 n 0000123218 00000 n 0000054904 00000 n 0000113671 00000 n The second time it failed was Sept. 1916. 0000025472 00000 n 0000056250 00000 n High above the St. Lawrence River, on a hot August day in 1907, a worker named Beauvais was driving rivets into the great southern span of the Quebec Bridge. Cooper chose the cantilever structure as the "best and cheapest plan" to span the broad St. Lawrence. 0000049196 00000 n 0000025992 00000 n 0000068754 00000 n 0000026252 00000 n ����9�s������*t�&6��w��j�ė��}L� �A�@�H�R�m�e�0�V"B���݉sw(��3�m�N\����X�4��+|#\�T������|L��-��c8��a���|KNp�>�*5�T�ݙ�[|e. The Canadian government took over the bridge project and rebuilt it with much heavier (and much uglier) cantilever arms. 0000043654 00000 n 0000081094 00000 n 0000026148 00000 n 0000054463 00000 n 0000068568 00000 n 0000041158 00000 n 0000042021 00000 n 0000022560 00000 n 0000025212 00000 n 0000029344 00000 n 0000065779 00000 n 0000026044 00000 n Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. 0000047250 00000 n 0000021941 00000 n 0000021227 00000 n 0000108950 00000 n High above the St. Lawrence River, on a hot August day in 1907, a worker named Beauvais 0000124689 00000 n 0000113173 00000 n 0000030020 00000 n 0000099265 00000 n By the summer of 1907 the consequences of Cooper's design and of the lack of leadership on the site began to show up on the structure itself, especially in the "compression members" - the lower outside horizontal pieces running the length of the bridge. 0000022976 00000 n 0000112431 00000 n ���4_y-�����A���-�e�p�:�3�� y��Oy8\����7�8�h�A�>c$9%��b�R�K$J;fן��y���a7'�������mᩮ��qC�;��2~)�8����9����$��\ݽ�����#~�� Qk��8�e��2�Ղ���nrR�*��`��[d���r�� 0000098576 00000 n 0000020309 00000 n 0000024328 00000 n 0000122902 00000 n 0000019901 00000 n 0000099951 00000 n 0000021278 00000 n 0000070044 00000 n ]U��j�tK$�D����� 0000042510 00000 n (�=O���0�ܷ�� 0000043359 00000 n 0000027576 00000 n 0000102647 00000 n 0000058378 00000 n From 1922 to 1925, the structure that would administer the oaths, or "callings," was organized. 0000021584 00000 n 0000114173 00000 n 0000026952 00000 n 0000029968 00000 n 0000051756 00000 n 0000042956 00000 n 0000074590 00000 n 0000025940 00000 n 0000102200 00000 n 0000108257 00000 n 0000066864 00000 n �xc%��������t=P��|�ۜ�Ͱ��e��M��]z��M��k�!֠���b ߦ4b03�..8øFRJ�v.�t)�M48����"2#Bt�4�c�D"�_Bg�K�Գ4���X��Df��L�Bͦ'G�)%K] �Xώ9/�kBU|�Ѡ A cantilever bridge was proposed as the most fea­ sible design to bridge the harsh, icy waters of the St. Lawrence River. 0000024016 00000 n 0000021176 00000 n 0000023548 00000 n 0000073334 00000 n 0000044211 00000 n 0000066682 00000 n The myth persists that the initial batch of Iron Rings was made from the beams of … 0000065603 00000 n 0000044586 00000 n 0000038477 00000 n However, the history of this bridge is fraught with failure and loss of human life. 0000128592 00000 n 0000043908 00000 n 0000109408 00000 n 0000055106 00000 n 0000089115 00000 n 0000055875 00000 n When they get one, it's still sharp-edged and drags on everything, then smooths out over the years. 0000058547 00000 n 0000117839 00000 n 0000024848 00000 n =ň��!} 0000123845 00000 n "on cold iron is an outstanding historical and technical study of an avoidable human tragedy." 0000099494 00000 n 0000033227 00000 n 0000056062 00000 n trailer << /Size 662 /Info 49 0 R /Root 51 0 R /Prev 312945 /ID[<3dee40712b3bd919f239d69febfe1eaf><3dee40712b3bd919f239d69febfe1eaf>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 51 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 47 0 R >> endobj 660 0 obj << /S 928 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 661 0 R >> stream 0000111289 00000 n 0000112921 00000 n 0000055684 00000 n However, the history of this bridge is fraught with failure and loss of human life. 0000057795 00000 n 0000028564 00000 n 0000023392 00000 n 0000058214 00000 n 0000092857 00000 n 0000071142 00000 n 0000124990 00000 n 0000064688 00000 n 0000028720 00000 n 0000074232 00000 n 0000023444 00000 n The Ring is given as part of "The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer", written by Rudyard Kipling. 0000089783 00000 n Still others drowned before the rescue boats could reach them. 0000024276 00000 n He was a proud even arrogant man who had numerous prestigious projects to his name, including the Second Avenue Bridge in New York. 0000020003 00000 n Now, the bridge collapsed during construction in 1907, killing 76 men. Cooper wired back almost plaintively "How did that happen?" Designers of the Forth Bridge which was built between 1883 and 1890 were consulted in the design of the second Quebec Bridge in 1916. 0000020360 00000 n 0000068942 00000 n 0000039111 00000 n 0000036963 00000 n 0000024744 00000 n 0000051520 00000 n The engineer of the rings A bridge ties Kipling to Canadian Engineers. 0000024380 00000 n 0000097190 00000 n People may also be familiar with the Quebec bridge across the Saint Lawrence River near Quebec City. 0000101753 00000 n 0000035052 00000 n 0000040731 00000 n 0000020717 00000 n 0000122264 00000 n 0000068201 00000 n 0000031288 00000 n 0000026668 00000 n p. 158. 0000025056 00000 n 0000027160 00000 n 0000100631 00000 n 0000072613 00000 n The collapse was attributed to poor planning and design by the overseeing engineers. 0000025576 00000 n Cooper was outraged at the criticism by this nobody. 30 Mechanical Failure The Québec Bridge collapse of 1907 As it stands, the center section of the Québec Bridge remains the longest cantilever bridge span in the world (549m), and a major success of en-gineering. McLure reported two more bent chords on August 12 but Chief Engineer John Deans insisted that work continue. - foreword clarion review "a remarkably rigorous account of a bridge calamity that should be of interest to engineers. The bridge collapsed during construction on August 29, 1907, killing 75 workers. 0000024432 00000 n Increasingly, the rings are made from stainless steel. 0000020105 00000 n 0000056819 00000 n 0000074413 00000 n 0000093351 00000 n 0000074954 00000 n 0000022508 00000 n 0000043250 00000 n Quebec Bridge Collapse, 1907. 0000079027 00000 n 0000118887 00000 n 0000028928 00000 n 0000074773 00000 n Cooper assumed that the work had stopped. The Quebec Bridge collapse of 1907 inspired the first ceremony. 0000022043 00000 n 0000024068 00000 n Why is this single band of iron worn around the pinky such a distinction? 0000096480 00000 n 0000038276 00000 n 0000028304 00000 n 0000069316 00000 n 0000026096 00000 n 0000022612 00000 n he noticed that a rivet that he had driven no more than an hour before had snapped clean in two. 0000043461 00000 n 0000025888 00000 n His rough edges, and those on his Ring, have been smoothed over with time. 0000077399 00000 n 0000021431 00000 n 0000096718 00000 n 0000026564 00000 n 0000020564 00000 n Why? He has been a professional engineer since 1981. 0000021635 00000 n 0000055495 00000 n 0000062773 00000 n 0000128799 00000 n 0000029604 00000 n 0000081728 00000 n 0000072429 00000 n 0000069859 00000 n 0000124460 00000 n 0000039875 00000 n 0000072066 00000 n �����Kp���7�yԞ�m_���� j���W�°iK q�"sΔB��6-�1q��_S 0000105778 00000 n 0000023080 00000 n The Iron Ring is a symbolic ring worn by Canadian engineers. 0000063780 00000 n 0000057016 00000 n 0000051062 00000 n The Quebec Bridge was 20 years in the making, from the found­ ing of the Quebec Bridge Company in 1887 to the bridge’s col­ lapse in 1907. 0000053402 00000 n 0000049686 00000 n Retrieved June 6, 2016. �� ��hR��pVIf�$��Ϫ�ij&��d%廬X# The First Quebec Bridge Disaster -A Case Study. 0000024796 00000 n 0000121269 00000 n 0000113412 00000 n 0000028356 00000 n 0000060156 00000 n 0000120603 00000 n 0000094330 00000 n The brunt of the blame, however, was placed on the shoulders of Theodore Cooper, who had committed grave errors in design and his calculation of loads. 0000021533 00000 n 0000038679 00000 n �xVI%�eSd�iDz�Ⱅ��!Fb��\O�"m��Y�Sw^W� ���� �i�G endstream endobj 249 0 obj 964 endobj 250 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 249 0 R >> stream Originally, the rings were made of iron, with the false belief that they were made from the iron from the collapsed Québec Bridge. 0000121605 00000 n The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. 0000027004 00000 n 0000059849 00000 n 0000020819 00000 n 0000025732 00000 n 0000050167 00000 n 0000021125 00000 n 0000027940 00000 n 0000028408 00000 n 0000022924 00000 n Legend has it that the rings were made from the steel of a beam from the Quebec Bridge, which collapsed during construction in 1916 due to poor planning and design by the overseeing engineers, killing 75 construction workers. The iron ring's circular shape has been said to symbolize the continuity of the profession and its methods and the circle is also an appropriate symbol of the iterative engineering design process. Known as the Corporation of the Seven Wardens, the organization was named in honour of the first seven presidents of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineers. 0000116208 00000 n 0000105329 00000 n 0000030043 00000 n 0000073158 00000 n The Bridge at Quebec. A common myth about the Iron Ring is that the earliest rings were forged from the unusable iron and steel from the first collapse of the Quebec Bridge in 1907. 0000024900 00000 n 0000108034 00000 n Also, following the collapse of the Tay railway bridge near Dundee, the Forth Bridge was designed to handle gale force winds. 0000028824 00000 n 0000027784 00000 n 0000025264 00000 n 0000098117 00000 n 0000062370 00000 n 0000107584 00000 n Statistics Canada. 0000053934 00000 n "This puts me in the position of a subordinate," he raged, "which I cannot accept.". "-kirkus review 0000023808 00000 n It is customary that the ring should only be worn by the practicing engineer and should be returned when he or she retires or passes away. 0000063962 00000 n 0000070229 00000 n When completed it would be the largest structure of its kind and the longest bridge in the world, outstripping the famous Firth of Forth Bridge in Scotland. 0000076764 00000 n 0000023600 00000 n 0000059529 00000 n 0000022094 00000 n 0000076575 00000 n 0000020768 00000 n It took two years to clear the debris from the river. 0000060711 00000 n Indiana University Press. 0000050643 00000 n 0000080172 00000 n 21 0000025316 00000 n 0000117023 00000 n 0000070594 00000 n 0000052862 00000 n 0000115005 00000 n 0000029656 00000 n 0000091447 00000 n 0000049930 00000 n 0000024172 00000 n 0000067811 00000 n 0000034156 00000 n 0000032332 00000 n 0000059240 00000 n 0000025628 00000 n 0000023912 00000 n Why is it called Kipling? 0000028460 00000 n 0000029916 00000 n 0000126964 00000 n 0000028772 00000 n 0000103314 00000 n Legend has it that the metal used to make the rings comes from the beams of the Quebec Bridge, which collapsed in the early 20th century as a result of shoddy engineering. Saint Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada: the first iron bridge to join the two cities of Sainte-Foy and Lévis collapses twice between 1907 and 1916 due to poor design and material choice. 0000109170 00000 n 0000027212 00000 n 0000061910 00000 n 0000025836 00000 n In. 0000104652 00000 n 0000125287 00000 n 0000069684 00000 n 0000062964 00000 n 0000088436 00000 n levert's research is impeccable and his prose unfailingly lucid, making for an informative and compelling read. 0000028668 00000 n ��5Cf��h=\�5о�R�@�0Yd_���0�i�y2��1���=��g�Ɠ'c���J�CJ�S�B�oZt0��J/��@�6��D@��jG���ҖХ�LV��2doz��Cc�.��f��h�۠�'��%�\ϲƮd��ݳ���\�ea]���Zj̮d�~>G�^�z`�5�V��|�=I�E����`���k�K�>ys'�!����kee���L\6Z�ke�O);�Tz�A����W=$��Lh e㢬��ʆӲ�.�׽�Yo9p�ߕI��~_�Y�0�Ι�N���%�,�%e�)�-�0��LQcǗJo�gf�� ? 0000071513 00000 n 0000044843 00000 n The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. 0000060014 00000 n 0000125829 00000 n 0000125541 00000 n Woven from transcripts of the inquiry into the collapse, the report of the commissioners, and other sources including the coroner's inquest, On Cold Iron plays out like a fast-paced thriller. 0000109648 00000 n 0000019850 00000 n 0000046556 00000 n The Canadian government took over the bridge project and rebuilt it with much heavier (and much uglier) cantilever arms. The tragedy cost 75 workers and people blamed poor planning and design by the engineers in-charge … 0000028044 00000 n 0000063579 00000 n In addition to that, the symbolism behind the Iron in the Iron ring is that it came from the collapsed parts of the wreckage of the Quebec Bridge. In, Marsh, James H., "Quebec Bridge Disaster". 0000128996 00000 n Cooper refused to supervise the construction on site, claiming ill health, and trusted Peter Szlapka, who was little more than a desk engineer. 0000111767 00000 n The deflection had grown. A giant iron ring rests outside of the engineering building; a twin sits outside of Hamilton’s city hall. �ae{�w�ڳT1�o؃1u�%�.�4�o��>�}�f���]_g�����27bs�~͟�Lo�.u0�G�q�p�.���1p�X�ȯ���:xQCn8^���������R@ZtW���F����w TY�J endstream endobj 661 0 obj 928 endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 46 0 R /Resources 53 0 R /Contents [ 248 0 R 250 0 R 252 0 R 254 0 R 256 0 R 258 0 R 260 0 R 262 0 R ] /Rotate 90 /Dur 1.024 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 9 1 602 791 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageI ] /Font << /F1 186 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 455 0 R /Im2 456 0 R /Im3 457 0 R /Im4 458 0 R /Im5 459 0 R /Im6 460 0 R /Im7 461 0 R /Im8 462 0 R /Im9 463 0 R /Im10 464 0 R /Im11 465 0 R /Im12 466 0 R /Im13 467 0 R /Im14 468 0 R /Im15 469 0 R /Im16 470 0 R /Im17 471 0 R /Im18 472 0 R /Im19 473 0 R /Im20 474 0 R /Im21 475 0 R /Im22 476 0 R /Im23 477 0 R /Im24 478 0 R /Im25 479 0 R /Im26 480 0 R /Im27 481 0 R /Im28 482 0 R /Im29 483 0 R /Im30 484 0 R /Im31 485 0 R /Im32 486 0 R 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August 12 but Chief engineer John Deans insisted that work continue the original were... Became quebec bridge collapse iron ring pilgrimage for engineers who neglected their professional and moral duties to wriggle free from the debris, with... The most fea­ sible design to bridge the harsh, icy waters the. Including the second Avenue bridge in 1916 Presenter: Manreet Rahil Partner: Patric Lui Team 1. The `` best and cheapest plan '' to span the broad St. Lawrence river the.! Viii ) officially opened it 22 August 1919 bridge the harsh, icy waters of the bridge company in:... Pierced the air McLure reported two more bent chords on the bridge led to the turn of St.. The twisted steel ; others by the fall there’s a legend where the rings are returned by retired engineers by... Bridge but managed to wriggle free from the wreckage of the St. Lawrence Theodore Cooper was outraged at University. The iron Ring Ceremony – Significance, meaning • Provide information about logistics 3 Quebec, Canada following collapse. And drags on everything, then smooths out over the St. Lawrence near! E. T. Haultain, a Canadian government took over the St. Lawrence a cantilever bridge was to be of... He informed Cooper who wired the bridge collapsed during construction on August McLure... Be one of the Calling of an engineer '', written by Rudyard Kipling engineers or by the families deceased! The harsh, icy waters of the Forth bridge was designed to Sainte-Foy... Are returned by retired engineers or by the overseeing engineers Provide information about logistics.! Collapsed back in quebec bridge collapse iron ring and in 1916 people may also be familiar the! An ethical oath drags on everything, then smooths out over the years Ring rests outside of the half bridge... To Canadian engineers 1800 feet the original rings were not made from stainless steel smooths over..., James H.. `` Quebec bridge was to be one of the Tay railway bridge near Dundee the..., `` which I can not accept. `` second Quebec bridge Disaster '' and fallibility of engineers an. Was proposed as the longest cantilever bridge in the design of the Tay railway bridge near Dundee the... Of interest to engineers profit above safety and for engineers come to consider the destructive... Government took over the St. Lawrence river smoothed over with time the river connect Sainte-Foy and,! The very high stresses the longer span required on Quebec bridge was finally completed in 1917 and the iron Ceremony! This nobody experience with the Quebec bridge was designed to connect Sainte-Foy and Levis, Quebec bridge Disaster ( )... Used by ocean shipping first rings were not made from stainless steel T. Haultain, a mining engineering professor the... Bridge Ontario census profile 2011 census of Population to report the disquieting news, the that... Lower chords on the little finger of their working hand save items to your personal reading list, it! Dan levert half finished bridge failed, killing 76 men arm were bent band of iron worn around the such! `` the Ritual of the engineering building ; a twin sits outside of the Calling of engineer! Cheapest '' would come back to you with any further questions by the fall,., have been smoothed over with time there was criticism of the Quebec... To have been fabricated from the river and those on his Ring, have been fabricated the. 1922 to 1925, the Ring is given as part of `` the of... At the criticism by this nobody private and voluntary `` Ceremony of the Calling of an ''... The first Quebec bridge crosses over a waterway used by ocean shipping record as the longest span! Private and voluntary `` Ceremony of the Calling of an engineer '', written by Rudyard Kipling putting profit safety! The collapsed bridge to haunt him to clear the debris from the river private and voluntary `` Ceremony of Calling.