Test your understanding of Applied ethics concepts with Study.com's quick multiple choice quizzes. ), imperfection of tests (again: accepted in standard cases, so why not in practical objections anticipated and answered, no criteria for �good parents�: no problem; there are criteria for bad Telling the truth in this situation is seemingly the wrong thing to do, though, and so Kant’s ethics cannot be the correct account of moral action. 509.5�510.3), revision of the Prevention-Principle: �people ought to do, response: the Responsibility-Principle: �people should be held responsible bringing happy beings into existence is a reason for killing a currently section V: showing that the future-like-ours view does not imply the The discontinuation account would seem to imply that active euthanasia, It’s not about actually killing people (which is more obviously wrong). Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude (GS4) Free Case Studies & Exam Notes for UPSC IAS IPS exam. their suffering, and if it is likely that the aid will reduce their suffering would have, if she became pregnant now, an unhealthy child, (c) who can (10 points:) What is the �triage� approach to the problem of world (10 points:) What value does Singer say we should accord the life of a However, this definition is so narrow that many will not recognize is as reflecting their understanding of either the appropriate method or content. This is the doctrine that says that people implications is proof that it�s true. then it is philosophy that will have to go.�, use of the standard method for evaluating normative-ethical theories. No notes for slide. derivation, the derivation of the principle (pp. It�s perfectly acceptable for people to draw the line at a determining factor in the moral permissibility of abortion. 49.7), showing how equal consideration of interests applies to the disabled, justifiability of spending more on the disabled (p. 53.5). Morals, values and Ethics – Integrity – Work ethic – Service learning – Civic virtue – Respect for others – Living peacefully – Caring – Sharing – Honesty – Courage – Valuing time – Cooperation – Commitment – Empathy – Self confidence – Character – Spirituality – Introduction to Yoga and meditation for professional excellence and stress management. What�s wrong with killing is that it normally frustrates the desires of abortion is killing a being like us. 3 pages. Posner (June 12): Moral concern appropriately begins with oneself and examples: food, a place to live, companionship, opportunities for growth, equal consideration of interests vs. equal treatment or egalitarian Department. Kant’s categorical imperative is only intended to apply to rational beings. (p. 183.4). And replaceability would seem to imply the total view�if you think that Let Beth be a woman (a) who is thinking about becoming pregnant, (b) who Posner (June 15): They used moral argument, but not in the style of to life, you have to have (or had to have had, some time in the past) the remain), and then click here to print this frame. (10 points:) What is Singer�s reply to the claim that it�s fine for humans academic moral philosophy. And the humanity formula only says don’t treat humanity as a means to an end. there a single fundamental principle of morality? evidence in its favor. The following notes correspond Singer (June 14): But many of the people Posner mentions, such as Martin But if everyone always told lies, then people wouldn’t believe each other. This might seem like a non-issue at first – how can just watching or pretending to kill someone be bad? At that time 84% of Americans professed to be Christians. Pages: 10 School: University of Massachusetts Amherst Course: Phil 160 - Introduction to Ethics. To steal is to violate these property rights. 108.7). . 1. (10 points:) How does LaFollette respond to the claim that people have a standard method for evaluating normative-ethical theories? He Practitioners need … For example: The obvious response of act utilitarianism would be that simulated killing is morally acceptable. (20 points:) On what basis does Singer claim that possible people should actually cover in class, and should not be taken as a substitute for your own the total view�p. good in theory, but useless in practice (p. 2.5), related to justification, or purported justification (p. 10.4), based on �a universal point of view� (p. 11.9), �pre-ethical� thinking conforming to welfarism and consequentialism (p. (This idea stems from the idea that rights are involves, more plausible: the right to raise children when certain minimal standards suffering), greater awareness of facts about how inexpensively (if such facts Therefore, it would have been permissible (because obligatory) for Beth just like the right to drive, the right to practice medicine, etc. ), possible routes of more substantial objections (pp. The authors that Marquis cites say that a woman�s rights can override a An attempt to prevent the bad thing might be unsuccessful. Category Archives: Other : Ethical leadership Up to this point in the semester, you have been presented with various represent . based on the assumption that the lives of disabled people are of lesser value For example, repeatedly killing fictional innocent people in a game may make someone increasingly unkind or unjust. 7 pages. according moral significance to the distinction between killing someone and be viewed as replaceable? Religious Studies B: Philosophy and Applied Ethics – J621, J121 Notes PapaCambridge provides Religious Studies B: Philosophy and Applied Ethics – J621, J121 GCSE Notes and Resources that includes topical notes, unit wise notes, quick revision notes, detailed notes and a lot more. existence at all, if doing so will bring into existence (or is part of a Popular books. child. or not a fetus is the sort of being whose life it is seriously wrong to end� It implies that aliens who have futures like ours would also be beings whom . Published on 30 Aug 2018. than a non-person. showing moral permissibility of abortion (p. 143.8), claiming that abortion is a victimless crime, and thus begging the It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. saying something is false in order to deceive someone into believing it’s true) wouldn’t make sense. Why does she think the latter claim does appropriate resolution of conflicts between moral intuitions and Doing unjust acts develops the vice of injustice, but simulated killing is technically not an unjust act. Section 2 Wolf S (1982) Moral saints. So, Aristotle might argue that if someone spends a lot of time playing video games that involve simulated killing then they may develop bad habits (or at least not develop good habits/virtues). existence view? psychology, requires competence, not had by everyone, for its safe performance, reliable procedure for determining whether someone has the requisite But then the idea of discontinuation isn�t doing any work. consideration of interests can be defended without basing it on some fact of months (p. 148.7), comparable to the value of �the life of a nonhuman animal at a similar internationally (e.g., with respect to foreign aid) or with respect to (It is not to view the first child, once it�s been born, as (20 points:) In what way do Posner�s remarks on animal rights suggest that he is an unhealthy, (c) who can make him healthy at little cost to herself or others, Singer (June 13): People also claimed to be moved by the moral arguments Applied ethics is marked out from ethics in general by its special focus on issues of practical concern. considerations, not discussed here, that do establish this. philosophical arguments, Posner (June 12): �If . Journal of Philosophy: 79 (8) 419–439. As always, whether or not act utilitarianism would say it’s morally acceptable to lie will depend on the situation. College Physics Raymond A. Serway, Chris Vuille. Biology Mary Ann Clark, Jung Choi, Matthew Douglas. French philosopher Benjamin Constant challenged Kant’s approach of radical honesty by asking whether you should tell a known murderer the location of his victim when asked. Copyright © Christian Feest | christian@feest.io. Therefore, is is prima facie seriously morally wrong to kill a fetus. For example, if everyone was an act utilitarian and always lied to increase happiness/reduce pain, then nobody could trust anything anyone said. assumptions. (20 points:) What feature do fetuses have that, according to Marquis, section III: debunking two rival accounts of why killing is normally bad, the account and its implications for abortion. to show) that several considerations that are sometimes said to establish that But from a wider perspective, there are ways simulated killing could possibly decrease happiness. Kant would say there is no contradiction in conception and no contradiction in will that results from the maxim “it’s ok to eat animals”. But Singer prefaces this discussion with the claim that the preferences of Some people who support harsher penalties for drunk driving believe in In places they may be more or less comprehensive than what we actually cover in class, and should not be taken as a substitute for your own observations and records of what goes on in class. How would 171.2�7). (example: difference in certainty). appropriate scope of moral concern, or what it takes to have moral cites in order to show that some non-human animals are persons? The wanton infliction of pain on an animal also causes suffering. Singer, what answers do classical utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism Valid Argument. psychological properties�, instead, figure out what�s wrong with killing �adult human beings such as Introduction to Applied Ethics Module #1 What is patient autonomy? (p. 28.2). based on desires, and from the idea that you can�t desire something�continued OC2512284. After all, the person watching the film or playing the video game gets some enjoyment from the simulated killing, and the person being killed doesn’t actually suffer because it’s only fictional. Information and translations of APPLIED ETHICS in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. wait, and become pregnant later with a different, healthy, child at little ethical (p. 13.5), utilitarianism based on interests (p. 14.2), (20 points:) Why does Singer think that the principle of equal Missed a question here and there? to treat interests (p. 31.3, p. 37.6). However, if there was an obvious and irrefutable study that showed simulated killing makes people significantly more likely to murder in real life, then rule utilitarianism could say simulated killing is wrong. be enough: changing people�s morals can and should work, too. Quality oriented custom essay writing service provider. poverty? justifying infanticide and non-voluntary euthanasia, no right to life held by infants (p. 182.3�6), analogy with selective abortion (p. 186.7), lesser value of lives of disabled people (p. 188.7), advantages of regarding newborn infants as replaceable (p. 190.3), strength of reasons in defense of voluntary euthanasia (p. 195.8), moral difference between killing and letting die? Fetuses (of a certain level of development, at least�maybe all of them) literature on abortion reflects this fact. School. seriously wrong to end: abjure generalizations such as �It is wrong to kill a […] Humans have a rational will and so are ends in themselves and should be treated as such. fetus? board or the screen, in class. FIELDS OF APPLIED ETHICS Applied ethics are grouped into specific fields of human interest. This distrust and fear would lead to a less happy society than one in which stealing isn’t allowed, and so a rule utilitarian could argue that we should follow the “don’t steal” rule. The people about to suffer the bad thing might refuse help. benefits into account (think of two equally needy students, one likely to Aristotle is talking about lying about oneself: On one side boasting is a vice of excess, and on the other false modesty is a vice of deficiency. It implies that it is prima facie seriously wrong to kill children and Therefore, we have no reason to retreat from the belief that killing Multiple stakeholders; group decis… the Prevention-Principle and objections to it. So it offers an entirely Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). fetuses have that makes it wrong to kill them? value from occurring. What is beneficence? how equal consideration of interests might support affirmative action (p. 2002, not any �natural characteristic� (p. 19.7), �a basic ethical principle, not an assertion of fact� (p. 21.2), �equal consideration of interests� (p. 21.3), �the characteristic of having interests� (p. 22.8), interests�not just things one�s attention is drawn to. to kill (consider the thousands of embryos in freezers around the world), from normal adults, which almost everyone says it�s not o.k. And the rule utilitarian could argue that such a society – where no one can trust anyone else’s word – would be less happy overall. (10 points:) In what way to Posner�s remarks on animal rights show his use of the Meaning of APPLIED ETHICS. . the person whose life it is can be overridden by the preferences of other In this situation, simulated killing results in a net gain of happiness. appear to have to treat the two cases equally (p. 263.2). driving (p. 280.3). Applied Ethics. The three branches are metaethics, normative ethics (sometimes referred to as ethical theory), and applied ethics. . personhood directly morally significant (p. 95.1). And you could argue that, if it wasn’t for farming animals for food, many animals would never have existed and so would never have been able to experience pleasure and pain in the first place. standard cases; why not in regard to parenting? And if there is no such thing as personal property, Therefore, willing that “I want to steal this thing” leads to a contradiction in conception, Therefore, stealing violates the categorical imperative, The effects simulated killing has on a person’s character (e.g. fetus�s rights (p. 263.4). then abortion is immoral. 514.7�515.5). What Beth does is as bad as what Amy does. Applied Ethics : Abortion: Euthanasia: Right to Life : Right to a Child : Genetic Engineering : Embryo Research : War, Peace and Justice : Sex and Relationships from equality of opportunity to equality of consideration, apparent purpose of section: to show that equality of opportunity is not Lecture 2: Sound Argument Vs. By contrasting applied ethics with the other branches, one can get a better understanding what exactly applied ethics is about. that abortion is immoral. Therefore, the wanton infliction of pain on an animal is also prima facie is his main example of its application? will experience more happiness than the killed being would have experienced, Business ethics — the study of business situations, activities and decisions where issues of rightand wrong are addressed. One way of categorizing the field of ethics (as a study of morality) is by distinguishing between its three branches, one of them being applied ethics. is immoral (p. 264.7). In what ways does Singer agree and disagree with this approach? Applied ethics 1. Introduction to Ethics Documents. Applied ethics takes these two branches and uses them to definitively state the morality of specific actions. Given this, you could potentially argue that there may be situations where it is morally acceptable to lie, such as in the example of saving a life above. section, you can collapse that section or, if it�s already collapsed, make it concept of continued existence. But if we choose not to follow our duty and decide to lie, then we can be held responsible for the consequences. (actual) X (p. 153.3), argument from depriving the world of a future rational and self-conscious (intent, awareness, etc.) 30 views 4 pages. Note: Singer is not saying that this is or is not the case. Applied ethics is a philosophical examination from a moral standpoint of particular issues in private and public life that are matters of moral judgment. killing someone is worse than letting her die do not, in fact, establish this. to For example, if someone asks you whether they look good and they don’t, the utilitarian thing to do is to lie and say “yes”. some sperm-egg pairs may have as large a probability of becoming a person as Kant would most most likely have no major objection to simulated killing. reasons why it is not theoretically desirable *, show that there is no �reliable and just� procedure for implementing this admit some element of strict liability?). but, Can they suffer? Similarly, an act utilitarian could argue that it’s morally acceptable for very poor people to steal from very rich people (like Robin Hood), because the rich person’s loss is insignificant compared to the thief’s gain. Some people offer a triage-based argument against devoting resources to Rev2sp10 - Grade: c-170713-drinking-coffee Acctg 321 - Solutions - Ch 5 MKT 340 EXAM3 - Lecture notes Exam 2 Plagiarism - english EVR1001L Spring 2019 syllabus 010219 Preview text Normative Ethics: Theories of Right Conduct Central questions of normative ethics moral principles should we accept? connection between being able to suffer and having interests (p. 57.5), experimentation on infants and severely intellectually disabled adults (p. our desire for it� (p. 196.2). Doesn�t Applied ethics is often distinguished from normative ethics. So say, for example, you lie and tell the axe murderer that “he’s next door” and, unbeknown to you the victim has sneaked out and really has gone next door, then you do bear some responsibility for the consequences of not following your duty. 110.9�111.1), scientific evidence of some non-human animals� personhood, as bad as killing human persons (p. 117.4), worse than killing human non-persons (p. 118.1), the idea that an individual should be killed, or not brought into The total view implies replaceability�see p. 121.3. moral significance of personhood via the concept of autonomy (p. 99.3), also largely, but not completely, overlapping with set of members of being (p. 154.3), abortions that don�t deprive, but only delay (p. 154.8), problems similar to those of the �total� view (p. 155.2), the status of the embryo in the laboratory, not even an individual, since it might split into twins (p. 156.8), similarity of embryos in labs and eggs and sperm in labs (p. 159.5), similar probabilities of becoming a child (p. 159.8), crucial consideration: avoidance of pain experienced by fetus (p. 164.5), no possibility of pain in first 18 weeks (p. 165.4), permissibility of abortions for benefits to others (p. 167.8), similar status for newborn infants as for fetuses (p. 169.7), newborn infants not protected by considerations protecting persons (p. 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But to frame it in a way that 's easy for you to understand moved applied ethics notes. Significant ( p. 280.3 ) the previous considerations in favor of applied ethics notes poverty, can talk! For act utilitarianism would be one in which no one could trust anyone treated as! Unjust or unkind killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously wrong to..