J. Sens. The Impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. “Opico: a study of emoji-first communication in a mobile social app,” in Paper Presented at the Companion of the World Wide Web Conference. We believe that observing whether users' actual facial expressions differ from their selected emoji emotionally in communication can help researchers understand users' psychological mechanism in communication. doi: 10.1080/01494920903224269, Phan, W. M. J., Amrhein, R., Rounds, J., and Lewis, P. (2019). Food Qual. 8, 180–186. Table 5. Emoji can be used both as an independent language and a non-verbal cue to convey meanings, which is the semantic function of emoji. Sci. PLoS ONE 13:e0197465. More research in this area is referred to in section The Emotional Functions of Emoji of this paper. “Analyzing incorporation of emotion in emoji prediction,” in Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis. Hum. (2016). Discourse Context Media 25, 68–77. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2018.1483960, Gibson, W., Huang, P., and Yu, Q. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.010, Jaeger, S. R., Roigard, C. M., Jin, D., Vidal, L., and Ares, G. (2019). On August 3rd, 2019, we searched Google Scholar and Web of Science using “emoji” as the key word for related literature in English since 1998. Users in different countries will use emoji with specific national or ethnic meanings (Gaspar et al., 2016). In general, users tend to use emoji in positive messages and to use them less in sad or angry messages (Cheng, 2017). doi: 10.17232/KSET.32.2.355, Cramer, H., Juan, P. D., and Tetreault, J. Many researchers from computer science try to solve this problem using a computer method and a series of algorithms or models for semantic disambiguation and sentiment analysis have been developed. doi: 10.1109/SmartTechCon.2017.8358463, Rathan, M., Hulipalled, V. R., Venugopal, K. R., and Patnaik, L. M. (2018). (2013). Food Res. Many studies have provided algorithms and models for emoji-based sentiment analysis, which mainly uses two kinds of techniques, sentiment lexicon, and machine learning. Dictionaries named the emoji ‘Face with Tears of Joy’ as the word of the year because it was the ‘word’ that best reflected the ethos, mood, and preoccupations of 2015 (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016). Soc. This blood is of two innocent children both killed by their father. doi: 10.3115/v1/W14-2609, Berengueres, J., and Castro, D. (2017). Lisbon emoji and emoticon database (LEED): norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions. Fernandez-Gavilanes et al. Prefer. Some specific uses of emoji are closely related to cultural background (Park et al., 2014). Res. Commun. “Bringing context into emoji recommendations,” in Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services. Distraction and facilitation: the impact of emotional sounds in an emoji oddball task. ... unlike some of the other companies out there, our online assignment writing service guarantees that every paper is written Thesis Emoji from scratch and is 100% original. In terms of the cognition of emoji, females perceive emoji as more familiar, clear and meaningful (Rodrigues et al., 2017). For example, users tend to use emoji more frequently and positively on Facebook than on Twitter (Tauch and Kanjo, 2016). Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. Women use emoji more in public communication, but less in private communication (Li et al., 2018). Psychol. Because of the cultural differences in emoji use, an EmojiGrid was developed for cross-cultural research on food-related emotions, which reliably reflects established cultural characteristics (Kaneko et al., 2019). Asian Soc. •First used by the computer scientist Scott Fahlmanin 1982. doi: 10.1080/17404622.2017.1401730, Butterworth, S. E., Giuliano, T. A., White, J., Cantu, L., and Fraser, K. C. (2019). doi: 10.1089/10949310050191809. “Untangling emoji popularity through semantic embeddings,” in Paper Presented at the Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (Montreal, QC). Int. Emoticons were introduced in 1872 and use ordinary punctuation marks from a standard computer keyboard to build up a representation of a face with a particular expression (Zhou et al., 2017). Zhou, R., Hentschel, J., and Kumar, N. (2017). Beyond positive or negative: qualitative sentiment analysis of social media reactions to unexpected stressful events. Couples and computer-mediated communication: a closer look at the affordances and use of the channel. In research on usingemoticons in sentiment analysis,Davidov, Tsur, and Rappoport(2010)found that when Amazon Mechanical Turk participants were present- ed with tweets in which emoticons had been removed, they were able to identify with high precision the original emot- icon that had been in the tweet. In 2015, emoji was named the word of the year by the Oxford English Dictionary, indicating emoji's influence in online communication. CyberPsychol. doi: 10.17706/IJCEE.2017.9.1.360-369, Balas, B., Kanwisher, N., and Saxe, R. (2012). Adv. Emotion encoding and interpretation in computer-mediated communication: reasons for use. Findings elucidate the capacity of emoji as a visual research method for eliciting children’s voices, and considerations for its use in child research. Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use. (2016). 103, 74–91. 10:784. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00784, Cahyaningtyas, R. M., Kusumaningrum, R., Sutikno, S, Riyanto, D. E., and IEEE. Copyright © 2019 Bai, Dan, Mu and Yang. (2019). 35, 443–449. Manage. Scientific research about emoticons and emoji is also increasing. The differences of emoticon use and its effects depending upon problem types and discussion message types in the process of online problem-solving discussions. “Sentiment analysis of tweets including emoji data,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence. 45, 697–716. Nonverbal Behav. “Automatic construction of an emoji sentiment lexicon,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining 2017. doi: 10.1145/3110025.3110139, Kraus, L., Schmidt, R., Walch, M., Schaub, F., and Moeller, S. (2017). Part of popular culture, and approved the submitted version application user Impacts of in. 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