According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. The manager has to spend considerable time in negotiations. Improving customer service − Manager faces the challenge to constantly improve customer service to survive in an ever-competitive environment. Every manager has to direct his subordinates to put the organizational plans into practice. Thus, he advises shareholders about financial performance, assures consumer groups that the organization is fulfilling its social responsibilities and satisfies government that the origination is abiding by the law. Interpersonal – This role involves human interaction. Resources are limited for any organization and optimal utilization of resources helps in minimizing the costs and in increasing the competitiveness of the firm in the market. In other words, manager is viewed as a symbol of status and authority. The work of managers is very challenging. The spokesperson speaks for the organization to outsiders. Here, the manager is acting as a friend. c. Integrating the organization with its environment to assess the level of competition, magnitude of social change, impact of Government policies, and legislative enactment, etc. Although the activities of managers at different levels vary, they have important elements in common. A marketing manager is advised by a marketing research manager about market trends. Fig. Disseminator – Manager, as disseminator, transmits information received from internal and external sources across the organisation. The liaison role consists of contacting external sources in context of organizational objectives. And these are just a few of a manager’s roles. Reporting − The manager has to keep updated information about all the ongoing tasks, and it is the sole responsibility of the manager to report the updated status to the higher authorities; while all the employees are bound to report to the manager. Further he observed that different managers emphasis different roles. It can be done in two ways −. There will never be sufficient time, money, materials, or manpower to accomplish all that is expected, so resource allocation often involves carefully assigning scarce resources. Integrating organization internally and externally. He maintains good relationships with his followers. According to 40% time is spended in these roles by managers. Henry Mintzberg conducted a comprehensive survey on the subject of managerial roles and integrated his findings with the results of a study of five practising chief executives. Following are the main sub roles, which managers often perform: i. Now, the manager should come forward voluntarily and eliminate the misunderstanding at the earliest. Managers manage other managers who either advise them, or are their superiors. The manager establishes appropriate targets and yardsticks, and analyzes, appraises and interprets performance. After studying several managers at work, Mintzberg classified their behaviours into three distinct areas or roles- interpersonal, informational, and decisional. Directing/Leading − It is a manager’s responsibility to guide the employees in all situations in order to avoid conflicts and delay in the task. Everything should work as per the plan, and if not then the manager needs to look into the issue and make it work as planned. In this role a manager develop new ideas and technology to ensure the innovation and change in the organization. They bargain with supplier, customers and others for better quality, lower prices, better delivery and prices etc. 6. As a spoke-person, the manager transmits information to individuals outside the organization. It helps us to see managerial work across levels and to integrate some of the vast amount of fragmented information on the subject. Managerial roles explain what managers do at workplace and refer to specific categories of managerial behavior. staffing. well with each other. In the role of leader, the manager works to hire, train, and motivate employees. The first line manager or supervisor or foreman is also a manager because he performs these functions. A manager cannot convert the raw materials into finished products himself; he has to take the help of others to do this. The functions are: 1. For example- a manager at Computers India might be responsible for handling all price negotiations’ with key suppliers of electronic circuit boards. Example − Keeping the respective directors informed about the progress on their respective projects. Managing Information 10. The next role is that of a disturbance-handler—a manager should take appro­priate decisions in crisis situations like strikes, lock-outs, etc. Article shared by : ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the top ten functions of management accounting. We have seen the different roles a manager as to play in order to maintain the workflow balance in an organization. In manage­ment jargon, they need to be the intrapreneurs to identify new opportunities of growth and make the organization exploit such opportunities. 2. Human resource management functions as a main contributor to the employee retention efforts. Purchase manager, for example, negotiates material prices and terms. A manager must be imaginative to plan ahead and to create new Ideas. Disseminator— Communicating information to organisational members, iii. To maintain work-life balance and for the betterment of the organization, the manager should try level best to resolve these challenges. Organisation’s reputation must be managed. An organisation comes into existence to achieve some objectives, say sell TVs to earn profits or treat cancer patients to serve the community. Management of things (non-human resources) deals with the design of production system, and acquisition, allocation and conversion of physical resources to achieve certain goals. Personnel manager negotiates union contracts. to resolve conflicts between two or more people and to take care of any unforeseen circumstances requiring urgent attention and action. As figure heads – In this role a manager welcome visitors, represent the company at community events and function as envoy of the organization. It involves the ability to foresee the effects of current actions in the long run in the future.Peter Drucker has defined plannin… It is more artistic than scientific. Managing Work 2. Negotiating prices of supplies with vendors, negotiating selling prices of products with clients, negotiating with trade unions for arriving at fair compensation structures for workers, are a few examples here. iii. Function # 1. Every manager is concerned with taking certain decisions and their implementation for the achievement of organisational objectives. Entrepreneur iii. While planning, managers play informational and decisional roles. It involves the predicting of the future as well as attempting to control the events. Here it is necessary to manage media, arrange press conferences, release press notes, insert publicity materials, etc. Informational roles are important because informa­tion is the lifeblood of organizations and the manager is the nerve center of his unit. According to Drucker, “Every manager is concerned with ideas, things and people.” Management is a creative process for integrating the use of resources to accomplish certain goals. Management of people is concerned with procurement, development, maintenance and integration of human resources in the organization. Managers negotiate with suppliers, custom­ers, unions, individual employees, the government, and other groups. 6. Example − If budget allows to place three employees then five employees cannot be assigned for the task. Privacy Policy3. iii. To gain access to knowledge bases, the managers need to network and engage in information exchange. In their decision-making role, managers have to take four kinds of decisions according to Mintzberg (1973). The above description of the managerial roles shows that managers must ‘change hats’ frequently and must be alert to the particular role needed at a given time. ii. Managers play a variety of roles in organisation to manage the work. He/she will need to map out detailed actions about what to do when to do, and […] The HR department plays a crucial role in employee retention and management. c. Delivering speeches at social gatherings. They motivate the people by providing various incentives and guide them through communication process. The difference between the functions of top, middle and lowest level management is that of degree. Interpersonal roles are more ceremonial and symbolic in nature. Though it is his duty to handle all the productive resources, but human factor is more important. ii. As Negotiators – Negotiation is another important role played by the managers in the organization. Lastly, management of ideas refers to distinction and innovation. The negotiator represents the organization in reaching agreements with other organizations, such as contracts between management and labour unions. Planning is required for setting goals and … 3. Mintzberg identified ten roles to perform the functions of management. All such vital information is stored and maintained at his level. Historically, this may be the best understood role of managers because they have always had the primary responsibility for resolving problems. Liaison — Liaisoning with external bodies and public relations activities. After an intensive observation of what five top executive actually did during the course of a few days at work, Henry Mintzberg concluded that these labels do not adequately capture the reality of what managers do. Finance is referred to as the provision of funds at the time when it is needed for the business. Figure Head Role ii. There should be public service advertising to project a good corporate image. Just as different management experts have defined management differently, they have classified managerial tasks differently. Most managers are expected to help the company make money, directly or indirectly. Similarly, a marketing manager reports to the Chief Executive. When scarce resources must be shared among many operating units, managers with superior negotiating skills will have advantages over others. Representing an organization in negotiating deals within the organization and also with external agencies like suppliers’ contractors, banks and the like. In the liaison role a manager connect with outsiders and frame a network with them. There is a surge of information these days. He alone receives it because of the contacts he develops in his liaison role and because of his status in leader’s role. iii. It is the duty of every manager to educate, train and develop people below him so that they may use their potentialities and abilities to perform the work allotted to them. Thus, a manager allocates the scarce resources to ensure their best use. 4. The functions are key to management in all levels, from the entry positions to higher roles of management.Furthermore, each five functions – planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling – are linked to each other. Example − Coordinating the schedule for a project. Responding to labor storage − If there is a labor shortage then the manager should quickly respond to solve this problem by arranging for the workforce required so that the product delivery is not delayed. 6. Managers in complex organisations act in entrepreneurial way, by constantly trying to improve their operations. Probing the behavioural aspect of a manager’s work, his roles may be categorized as follows: Interpersonal Roles are primarily social in nature, that is, they are the roles in which manager’s main task is to relate to other people in certain ways. Integrating individuals with the organization vertically and horizontally. The fourth decisional role is that of negotiator. Avoid them by following these 10 “golden” rules of effective management: 1. The Five Functions of Management was developed by Henry Fayol in 1916, at a time when management models simply didn’t exist. Motivating subordinates and directing them towards goal accomplishment. Managing Innovation 7. They determine human resource requirements, select and train people and maintain personnel records. ii. This is necessary for achieving the objectives of the enterprise. Director – Manager gives direction to people working under him. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! ii. Second, management of ideas refers to the planning phase of management process. Managing Workers 3. Three important interpersonal roles are the figurehead, the leader, and the liaison. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Some of the decisional roles of a manager are:- i. Disturbance Handler ii. It is more artistic than scientific. A role consists of the behaviour patterns displayed by a manager within an organisation or a functional unit. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings: i. Figurehead — Ceremonial and symbolic role. Leadership Role iii. The greater part of every manager’s time is spent in communicating and dealing with people. Managers must live up to the tasks. Example − All members of a team cannot be granted leave on the same day, as it affects work delivery. The allocation process bears on the role of negotiator. They also take policy and operative decisions. The manager in a leader role hires, trains, and motivates his personnel. As leader – It describes the manager relationship with his own subordinates, his need to hire, train and motivate them. All these functions are essential for running an organization smoothly and achieving enterprise objectives. In this role, the manager informs and satisfies various groups and people who influence his organization. These roles describe what managers actually do, whereas functions of managers had historically described what managers should do. He has also to help them in satisfying their needs and working under him, he must provide them with proper environment. The workers should be given a sufficient measure of freedom to organize and control their work environment. Monitor — Collecting information from Organisations, both from inside and outside the organisation, ii. answer choices . This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. These roles describe what managers actually do, whereas functions of managers had historically described what managers should do. For instance, top management concentrates more on long-range planning and organization, middle level management concentrates more on coordination and control and lowest level management concentrates more on direction function to get the things done from the workers. 3. In this role, the manager has to work like a fire-fighter. ”. Thus, the chairman of a company may negotiate with the union leaders a new strike issue; the foreman may negotiate with the workers a grievance problem, and so on. In recent years, entrepreneurs have been identified with a commitment to innovation. 5.1 Commanding 10. All managers have to manage workers — procure them, induct them, train and develop them, motivate them and lead them. It prescribes what managers should do. Management is an innovative process for integrating the use of resources to accomplish certain goals. Henry Mintzberg criticized the traditional func­tional approach. Thus, a manager’s job primarily consists of management of people. (ii) Leader – This encompasses a range of duties suggested earlier including motivating workers, guiding work-related behaviour, and encouraging activities that help achieve organisational objectives. Communication. Controlling Performance 5. Again, this role can be subdivided into the following: i. Roles of a Manager – 10 Roles Performed by a Manager in an Organisation, Roles of Managers – Top 10 Roles of a Manager. They must be properly compensated too. The employee relations must be a priority. They must also be properly motivated so that they work with devotion and loyalty for the achievement of organisational objectives. The functions are: 1. Process of engineering − Focusing on the manufacturing of the product, so that the quality is not compromised. As figure head – It describes the manager as a symbol required by the status of his office, to carry a variety of social, legal and ceremonial duties. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Each member of the group is assigned a specific task so that the targets of the group as a whole may be achieved. Manager’s working at various levels is extremely complex and open-ended at the same time. Functions of a manager are the various roles played by the manager in an organization. 9. Coordinating − It means bringing all the employees together by forming an efficient relationship and making them feel comfortable to share their views and issues freely. The monitor activity seeks information that might be of value to the organization in general or to specific managers. Share Your PDF File Mintzberg (1973) classified managerial roles into three broad categories, namely –. Managing Stakeholders. At the middle level of management, informational roles are found to be more common. Managing PR (Public Relations) 9. The top most duty of a figure head is to inspire the cadres and the stakeholders with his vision and action plans. He schedules his own time according to his priorities. Some of the interpersonal roles of a manager are:-i. The Liaison:making contacts outside the vertical chain of command including peers in other companies or departments, and government and trade organization representatives. The final accounts are presented here. 6.1 Characteristics of controlling function of management 12. (ii) Disseminator – Here communications are reversed. Entrepreneur — Initiating new ideas to improve organisational performance, ii. While performing these functions, a manager has to play multiple roles. 3. 5. The manager in the present age has to deal efficiently with the people who are to contribute for the achievement of organizational goals. Their responsibilities demand careful observation objective analysis and sound Judgment- traits of the true professional. Manager, as a liaison officer, maintains a network of contacts outside the department or organisation to obtain information. Managers maintain a vast number of contacts, spending most time with subordinates, linking them with superiors and others in a complex network. The manager creates a team out of his people, through decisions on pay, placement, promotion, and through his communications with the team. Planning Organizing Directing Controlling 1) Planning Planning is a process of thinking before taking action. a. b. Absorbing changes or bringing in changes into the organization to capitalize opportunities identified through environmental scanning. All line managers like the sales and production managers manage workers on day-to-day basis. Management contributes a lot towards the making of a state and its citizens. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. Negotiator iv. He is concerned with the needs of individuals coordinating and maintaining subordinates, colleagues and superiors. The liaison role is important for establishing contacts with suppliers, coordinating activities among work groups, and encouraging harmony needed to assure effective performance. As the term implies, informational roles are concerned with communication among individuals and groups, but managers must also be skilled in gathering and using information to help make effective decisions. A manager is accountable for all the happenings in the firm and is answerable to the management. There are three interpersonal roles inherent in the manager’s job. It is a kind of organized foresight as well as corrective hindsight. Figurehead Role of Manager. These roles are concerned with action. Roles of Managers – Interpersonal Roles, Informational Roles and Decisional Roles, Roles of a Manager – 3 Categories:  Information Roles, Decision-Making Roles and Interpersonal Roles, – 5+ Roles of a Manager: Director, Motivator, Human Being, Guide, Friend, Planner, Supervisor and Reporter, Roles of a Manager – To Perform the Functions of Management, Managerial roles are specific behaviors of managers during the attainment of organizational goals. The role a manager welcomes visitors, represent the company at community events and function as envoy of the organization. Organising 3. The greatest problem before any manager is how to manage the personnel to get the best possible results. In this role a manager welcome visitors, represent the company at community events and function as envoy of the organization. Guide – Manager should be well aware of using the equipment, techniques and procedures involved in performing specific tasks. Although the activities of managers at different levels vary, they have important elements in common. Managers require different types of information and resources to take decisions in different capacities such as: i. SURVEY . As a disturbance handler, the manager handles difficult prob­lems and non-routine situations such as strikes, energy shortages etc. Monitoring Role ii. Ask a manager what he does on a typical work day. 4.3 Steps in organizing function from the perspective of a manager 9. The work of managers is very challenging. 30 seconds . Our working definition describes managers as organizational planners, organizers, leaders and controllers. An organisation cannot survive in today’s competitive world without having innovative products. According to Mintzberg managing is an integrated activity and these roles are intertwined. He delegates, empowers and supervises teams in the process of achieving the goals. a. 7. A firm’s policy on competition, its philosophy of customer care, and its commitment to safety are topics common in executive speeches. Budgeting − A task has to be completed within the given time frame as well as it should be cost efficient. Improving quality and productivity − It is the sole responsibility of the manager to increase the productivity without hampering the quality. Mintzberg identified four roles within the list of his behavioural sets. The management function that determines to what extent the business is accomplishing the goals is set out to reach in the planning stage is. He looks the problems and opportunities and initiates projects to deal with them. The finance manager or controller has a task entirely different from that of an accountant, he is to manage funds. It has three connotations – First, it refers to the need for practical philosophy of management to regard management as a distinct and scientific process. Managers must provide for in-house R&D. A manager performs organizing function with the help of following steps:-Identification of activities - All the activities which have to be performed in a concern have to be identified first. There are mainly three roles in this category: i. Managers have the tasks cut out for them. For the effective utilisation of resources, the workers may be given adequate instructions and training. Managers must do an efficient allocation to get the optimum results. His presence is required because he has the information and authority to make the real time decisions as difficult negotiations require. According to Henry Fayol Mention five management functions, namely designing, organizing, commanding, mengordinasi, and control. It involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a specific goal as a manager. As resource allocator, the manager decides how resources are distributed, and with whom he will work most closely. They establish relationships between activities and people, take decisions about utilisation of resources and act as liaisons. In this process, ideas, things and people are vital inputs, which are to be transformed into output consistent with the, Management of ideas implies use of conceptual skills.